Children, glasses, Vision: Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism, Anisekonia: Children may need glasses for several reasons—some of which are different than for adults. Because a child’s visual system is growing and developing, especially during the first 6 years of life, glasses may play an important role in ensuring normal development of vision. This page will review the concepts of children, glasses. Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism, Anisekonia
The main reasons a child may need glasses are:
To provide better vision, so that a child may function better in his/her environment
To help straighten the eyes when they are crossed or misaligned (strabismus)
To help strengthen the vision of a weak eye (amblyopia or “lazy eye”). This may occur when there is a difference in prescription between the two eyes (anisometropia). For example, one eye may be normal, while the other eye may have a significant need for glasses caused by near-sightedness, far-sightedness or astigmatism.
To provide protection for one eye if the other eye has poor vision A child may need glasses to:
Children and Eyeglasses: How important is it for children to wear their glasses?
Early childhood is the most critical period of vision development. Blurred vision in one or both eyes can prevent the visual system from developing properly. Wearing glasses and seeing better is proven to improve school performance.
That’s why it’s important for children wear their prescribed glasses.
How can a child be tested for glasses, especially in early childhood?
Dr. Duplessie can detect the need for glasses through a complete eye exam. Typically, the pupils are dilated in order to relax the focusing muscles, so that an accurate measurement can be obtained. By using a special computer, Dr. Duplessie can arrive at an accurate prescription and will then advise parents whether there is a need for glasses, or whether the condition can be monitored.
is an instrument to test for glasses in children because they may be unable to read the eye chart.
What are the different types of refractive errors (need for glasses) that can affect children?
The basic types of refractive errors are:
Myopia (near-sighted) –
This is a condition where the distance vision is blurred, but a child can usually see well for reading or other near tasks. This occurs most often in school-age children, although occasionally younger children can be affected. The prescription for glasses will indicate a minus sign before the prescription (for example, -2.00). If the myopia is slight, allowing a child to sit a little closer to the front of the classroom may be an alternative.
Hyperopia (far-sighted) –
Most children are far-sighted early in life (this is normal!) and need no treatment for this because they can use their own focusing muscles to provide clear vision for both distance and near vision. Glasses are rarely needed if the far-sightedness is less than +1.00 or even +2.00. When an excessive amount of far-sightedness is present, the focusing muscles may not be able to keep the vision clear. As a result of this, problems such as crossing of the eyes, blurred vision, or discomfort may develop. A prescription for hyperopia will be preceded by a plus sign (for example, +3.00).
Astigmatism is caused by a difference in the surface curvature of the eye. Instead of being shaped like a perfect sphere (like a basketball), the eye is shaped with a greater curve in one axis (like a football). If your child has a significant astigmatism, fine details may look blurred or distorted. Glasses that are prescribed for astigmatism have greater strength in one direction of the lens than in the opposite direction. A prescription for astigmatism will have several numbers and bold numbers reflect the amount and direction of the astigmatism: -2.00 +2.50 X 90.
Some children may have a different prescription in each eye. This can create a condition called amblyopia, where the vision in one eye does not develop normally. Glasses (and sometimes patching or eye drops) are needed to insure that each eye can see clearly.
How will I ever get my child to wear glasses? Some tips for getting children to wear their glasses?
This is a question most parents ask, especially when their child is an infant or toddler. The best answer is that most young children who really need glasses will wear them happily because they do make a difference in their vision. Initially, some children may show some resistance to wearing their glasses, but it is helpful for parents to demonstrate a positive attitude. Toddlers often wear the glasses only when they are in a good mood and reject them – and everything else – when they are not.
Here are a few ideas to help get your child to wear glasses:
Start by having your child wear glasses for short periods during enjoyable activities, when your child will be having so much fun that he or she will forget about them. Use the glasses as part of reward times, such as when your child is watching his or her favorite video.
Choose a time when your child is rested and in a good mood to start requiring the glasses.
If your child takes his or her glasses off, be sure you put them back on in a firm but loving manner.
If your child learns that he or she has control over wearing the glasses, you may lose the battle. You do not want taking off the glasses to be an attention-getting tool.
Check the fit of the glasses. Stop by the optical shop if the frame loosens. As the child grows, the glasses may become tight or uncomfortable. Glasses that are poorly fitted can easily slip and slide down, and they then become useless.
Be positive. Parents’ and grandparents’ attitude can influence a child more than you think. Make glasses “cool” for your child: point out pictures of sports stars or entertainers who wear glasses. For very young children, “being just like mommy or nana” may be what counts.
Compliment your child for remembering to wear his or her glasses
Give your child some say in selecting the frame. Select three or four different frames that are acceptable to you, and then let the child pick the one he or she likes best.
Make the glasses a part of the child’s daily routine. Put them on in the morning as your child is getting dressed and remove them before naps and bedtime. Enlist the teachers’ help by telling them your child’s schedule for wearing glasses.
My child will not wear his glasses. He says it’s blurry with them on.
Children usually need a few weeks to get used to new glasses or to an updated prescription. Often children who have a negative perception of glasses will claim they see blurry to avoid having to wear them. Only if he continues to complain after one month of consistently wearing the glasses should they be rechecked to make sure that they are accurate.
Will my child need glasses for the rest of her life? Will she become dependent on them?
If your child has myopia or nearsightedness, then she will most likely need glasses for life or until she elects contact lenses as a teenager or refractive (LASIK) eye surgery as an adult (usually no sooner than age 18). Since clear vision with eyeglasses is preferable to uncorrected vision, glasses wearers may find that they want to wear eyeglasses more often. Although it may seem as if they are becoming dependent on eyeglasses, glasses wearers are actually just getting used to seeing clearly.
Does watching TV, using the iPad or iPhone, or staring at the computer make the eyes or vision weak? Do these behaviors cause increased need for glasses or damage the eyes?
Watching television or working on computers or video display terminals (VDTs) will not harm your eyes. Often, when using a VDT for long periods of time, just as when reading or doing other close work, you blink less often than normal. This reduced rate of blinking makes your eyes dry, which may lead to the feeling of eye strain or reflexive excessive blinking. There is some evidence that excessive indoor reading or viewing of VDT activities can increase myopia, so outdoor activity after school can balance against this.
Are there vitamins, nutrients or dietary things I can do to reduce the glasses prescription for my child?
Almost all children in the United States have an adequate, well-balanced diet including vitamins that are sufficient to promote normal eye health and growth. The need to wear glasses is unrelated to the nutritional state of the body.
It is nevertheless helpful to ensure plenty of green, leafy vegetables for healthy eyes and eyesight.
Why does my child’s prescription continue to increase?
The prescription continues to increase because the eyes are growing. A naturally growing eye becomes more myopic or nearsighted. This is a normal developmental process, not a degenerative process.
A far sighted prescription will become less as the child grows.
Does my child need bifocals?
Children rarely need bifocals. Occasionally, children who have crossed eyes (esotropia) may need to have bifocals to help control the crossing. Also, children who have had cataract surgery usually need bifocals or reading glasses.
Will wearing glasses make my child’s eyes worse or more dependent on them?
No. In fact, the opposite may be true. If a child does not wear the glasses prescribed, normal vision development can be adversely affected.