EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR VITREOMACULAR TRACTION:

Posted Posted in Retina
Retina, vitreous, VITREOMACULAR TRACTION
Retina. 2016 Jan 16. [Epub ahead of print]

EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR VITREOMACULAR TRACTION: A Case Series and Meta-Analysis.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To evaluate treatment options for vitreomacular traction (VMT).

METHODS:

A retrospective, consecutive case series and a literature search with Boolean search logic. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to combine the rates of VMT resolution per treatment. Patients from studies analyzed were placed into cohorts based on the treatment received.

RESULTS:

Case series: Zero of 10 control, 3 of 7 intravitreal ocriplasmin (IVO, P = 0.10), 7 of 8 intravitreal expansile gas (pneumatic vitreolysis, PV, P < 0.01), and 10 of 10 pars plana vitrectomy (P < 0.01)-treated eyes experienced VMT release (VMTr) at Day 28. No patients developed retinal tears or detachment. One PV-treated (12.5%) eye developed a macular hole. Meta-analysis: Twenty-three of 131 prospective or retrospective and consecutive articles were included. Sixty-three eyes were treated with PV, 726 eyes were treated with intravitreal ocriplasmin, and 253 eyes were characterized as the control group (saline injection). The weighted rate of VMT resolution for the control group was 0.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.13), PV was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.92), and intravitreal ocriplasmin was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.23-0.29).

CONCLUSION:

Our analysis found that PV releases VMT in most patients and suggest that PV may be as effective or superior to nonsurgical options for VMTr at Day 28 with a similar risk profile.

(pneumatic vitreolysis, PV, P < 0.01), and 10 of 10 pars plana vitrectomy (P < 0.01)-treated eyes experienced VMT release (VMTr) at Day 28. No patients developed retinal tears or detachment. One PV-treated (12.5%) eye developed a macular hole. Meta-analysis: Twenty-three of 131 prospective or retrospective and consecutive articles were included. Sixty-three eyes were treated with PV, 726 eyes were treated with intravitreal ocriplasmin, and 253 eyes were characterized as the control group (saline injection). The weighted rate of VMT resolution for the control group was 0.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.13), PV was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.76-0.92), and intravitreal ocriplasmin was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.23-0.29).

CONCLUSION:

Our analysis found that PV releases VMT in most patients and suggest that PV may be as effective or superior to nonsurgical options for VMTr at Day 28 with a similar risk profile.

Graves Lower Eyelid Retraction.

Posted Posted in eye health
Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Jan 18. [Epub ahead of print]

Graves, Hyperthyroidism,Eyelid Retraction,Michael Duplessie

Graves Lower Eyelid Retraction.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Graves lower eyelid retraction (GLLR) is a common and controversial sign of Graves orbitopathy. The authors reviewed the mechanisms and surgical techniques currently used to correct this Graves orbitopathy-related eyelid malposition.

METHODS:

A literature search was performed on the MEDLINE database using the keywords “lower eyelid retraction,” “Graves orbitopathy,” “thyroid ophthalmopathy,” “thyroid eye disease,” “spacers,” and “eyelid surgery.” Only articles in English were included. The level of evidence of publications regarding surgical correction of GLLR was evaluated and graded from I to IV, using a rating system adapted from a validated scientific evidence classification method.

RESULTS:

The mechanisms responsible for GLLR are not fully understood and no subtypes of GLLR have been distinguished. The surgical literature of GLLR encompasses mainly descriptions of surgical techniques without objective measurements of the results, and uncontrolled studies. Only 1 randomized controlled trial was identified. To lengthen the lower retractors, a large variety of different materials have been used as spacers.

CONCLUSIONS:

The scientific literature on GLLR is vast, however controlled and randomized studies comparing different surgical techniques are lacking. At the present moment it is not clear if bioengineered materials are superior to conventional autogeneous tissue as lower eyelid spacers. The effects of GLLR on lower eyelid movements and contour have not been studied.

PMID:
26784547
The mechanisms responsible for GLLR are not fully understood and no subtypes of GLLR have been distinguished. The surgical literature of GLLR encompasses mainly descriptions of surgical techniques without objective measurements of the results, and uncontrolled studies. Only 1 randomized controlled trial was identified. To lengthen the lower retractors, a large variety of different materials have been used as spacers.

CONCLUSIONS:

The scientific literature on GLLR is vast, however controlled and randomized studies comparing different surgical techniques are lacking. At the present moment it is not clear if bioengineered materials are superior to conventional autogeneous tissue as lower eyelid spacers. The effects of GLLR on lower eyelid movements and contour have not been studied.

Keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated with the combination povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole.

Posted Posted in cornea

keratomycosis, fusarium ,iodine, fluconazole

Keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated with the combination povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole.

[Article in French]

Abstract

In developing countries where systemic antifungal are often unavailable, treatment of filamentous fungi infection as Fusarium is sometimes very difficult to treat. We report the case of a keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated by povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole. The diagnosis of abscess in the cornea was retained after ophthalmological examination for a 28-year-old man with no previous ophthalmological disease, addressed to the Ophthalmological clinic at the University Hospital Le Dantec in Dakar for a left painful red eye with decreased visual acuity lasting for 15days. The patient did not receive any foreign body into the eye. Samples by corneal scraping were made for microbiological analysis and the patient was hospitalized and treated with a reinforced eye drops based treatment (ceftriaxone+gentamicin). The mycological diagnosis revealed the presence of a mold: F. oxysporum, which motivated the replacement of the initial treatment by eye drops containing iodized povidone solution at 1 % because of the amphotericin B unavailability. Due to the threat of visual loss, oral fluconazole was added to the local treatment with eye drops povidone iodine. The outcome was favorable with a healing abscess and visual acuity amounted to 1/200th. Furthermore, we noted sequels such as pannus and pillowcase. The vulgarization of efficient topical antifungal in developing countries would be necessary to optimize fungal infection treatment.

The mycological diagnosis revealed the presence of a mold: F. oxysporum, which motivated the replacement of the initial treatment by eye drops containing iodized povidone solution at 1 % because of the amphotericin B unavailability. Due to the threat of visual loss, oral fluconazole was added to the local treatment with eye drops povidone iodine. The outcome was favorable with a healing abscess and visual acuity amounted to 1/200th. Furthermore, we noted sequels such as pannus and pillowcase. The vulgarization of efficient topical antifungal in developing countries would be necessary to optimize fungal infection treatment.

Complications of Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty

Posted Posted in cornea

Antigen–antibody reactions, Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty, Glaucoma, Tissue donors, Transplant

Complications of Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty.

[Article in German]

Abstract

Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is a relatively new, but now established surgical procedure to cure corneal endothelial disorders. However, there are donor- and recipient-associated sources of potential complications, some of which can be identified and addressed prior to the procedure and others that may lead to intra- or postoperative problems. Preoperatively, risk factors for a limited visual outcome (ocular comorbidities, previous ocular surgery, subepithelial/stromal scars) and the specific indication for DMEK should be discussed with the patient. Intraoperatively, young donor age can be associated with a particularly elastic graft, which may be difficult to unfold. Such transplants are not appropriate for particularly difficult recipient situations (very opaque cornea, history of vitreoretinal surgery). Postoperatively, transplant dehiscence is the most common complication, which in many cases can be managed by reinjection of air (or a 20 % SF6 gas/air mix) into the anterior chamber. An elevation of the intraocular pressure after DMEK is often caused by a reaction to topical steroid therapy. Although immune rejections after DMEK are less likely than after Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and perforating keratoplasty, adequate treatment with topical steroidal drugs is recommended. These common and several rare complications are discussed in this review.

KEYWORDS:

Antigen–antibody reactions; Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty; Glaucoma; Tissue donors; Transplant recipients

bstract

Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is a relatively new, but now established surgical procedure to cure corneal endothelial disorders. However, there are donor- and recipient-associated sources of potential complications, some of which can be identified and addressed prior to the procedure and others that may lead to intra- or postoperative problems. Preoperatively, risk factors for a limited visual outcome (ocular comorbidities, previous ocular surgery, subepithelial/stromal scars) and the specific indication for DMEK should be discussed with the patient. Intraoperatively, young donor age can be associated with a particularly elastic graft, which may be difficult to unfold. Such transplants are not appropriate for particularly difficult recipient situations (very opaque cornea, history of vitreoretinal surgery). Postoperatively, transplant dehiscence is the most common complication, which in many cases can be managed by reinjection of air (or a 20 % SF6 gas/air mix) into the anterior chamber. An elevation of the intraocular pressure after DMEK is often caused by a reaction to topical steroid therapy. Although immune rejections after DMEK are less likely than after Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) and perforating keratoplasty, adequate treatment with topical steroidal drugs is recommended. These common and several rare complications are discussed in this review.

KEYWORDS:

Antigen–antibody reactions; Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty; Glaucoma; Tissue donors; Transplant recipients

Antigen–antibody reactions, Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty, Glaucoma, Tissue donors, Transplant
DSAEK and PK. Different paper

Evaluation of a short-term topical interferon α-2b treatment for histologically proven melanoma and primary acquired melanosis with atypia.

Posted Posted in eye health
Orbit. 2015 Dec 4:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]

Evaluation of a short-term topical interferon α-2b treatment for histologically proven melanoma and primary acquired melanosis with atypia.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the efficiency of series of 6-week treatments with brief intervals (6-week = 1 cycle) of topical Interferon α-2b (IFNα-2b) treatment in primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia and melanoma of the conjunctiva.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Five patients with biopsy-proven PAM with atypia and seven patients with melanoma of the conjunctiva, treated with topical IFNα-2b (1 million units/ml, 5 times daily), were included in the study. All patients had colour photographs and the tumour area was measured manually for each patient before and after treatment.

RESULTS:

The median age of 12 patients at initiation of treatment was 61.5 years (range 39-75 years). The mean therapy duration was 2.4 cycles (range 1-6 cycle). Compared to pretreatment lesion dimension, the mean decrease in tumour size were after the first cycle 66% (range 18-98%; p = 0.004; n = 10 patients), after the second cycle 55% (range 10-100%; p = 0.016; n = 7 patients), and after the third cycle 74% (range 23-100%; n = 3 patients). In one patient 6 cycles of topical IFNα-2b were needed. The decrease in size was 22% after the 4th cycle, 34% after the 5th cycle, and 98% after the 6th cycle.

CONCLUSION:

Our clinical experience demonstrates promising results of topical IFNα-2b treatment for PAM with atypia and melanoma of the conjunctiva without any local or systemic side effects. However, future multicenter prospective studies are recommended to confirm the efficiency and safety of topical IFNα-2b treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Conjunctiva; Topical IFNα-2b; melanoma; primary acquired melanosis with atypia

CONCLUSION:

Our clinical experience demonstrates promising results of topical IFNα-2b treatment for PAM with atypia and melanoma of the conjunctiva without any local or systemic side effects. However, future multicenter prospective studies are recommended to confirm the efficiency and safety of topical IFNα-2b treatment.

KEYWORDS:

Conjunctiva; Topical IFNα-2b; melanoma; primary acquired melanosis with atypia

Structural Measurements for Monitoring Change in Glaucoma: Comparing Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness With Minimum Rim Width and Area

Posted Posted in glaucoma, Retina
retinal nerve fiber, glaucoma, optic nerve, nerve fiber layer thickness
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Oct 1;56(11):6886-6891. doi: 10.1167/iovs.15-16701.

Structural Measurements for Monitoring Change in Glaucoma: Comparing Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness With Minimum Rim Width and Area.

Author information

 retinal nerve fiber, glaucoma, optic nerve, nerve fiber layer thickness

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Minimum rim width (MRW) and area (MRA) have been introduced as anatomically defensible measures of neuroretinal rim tissue observable using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). They have been reported to change earlier than retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in glaucoma. This study sought to determine which is better to distinguish subsequent change from variability, using the previously described longitudinal signal-to-noise ratio (LSNR).

METHODS:

Data from 157 eyes of 157 participants with high-risk ocular hypertension or non-end-stage glaucoma (mean deviation [MD] from -22 to +3 dB) were used. Participants were tested approximately every 6 months for at least six visits. For each eye, MRW, MRA, and RNFLT were regressed linearly against time. Longitudinal signal-to-noise ratio for each eye was defined as the rate of change over time (signal) divided by the standard deviation of residuals from this trend (noise). These were compared between parameters using a Wilcoxon signed rank test.

RESULTS:

The median LSNRs were -0.58y-1 for RNFLT (bootstrapped 95% confidence interval -0.69 to -0.48y-1); -0.44y-1 (-0.59 to -0.32y-1) for MRW; and -0.23y-1 (-0.32 to -0.08y-1) for MRA. Longitudinal signal-to-noise ratios were significantly more negative for RNFLT than for MRW (P = 0.025) or for MRA (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by SDOCT had a better LSNR than MRW or MRA. Although MRW and MRA may be more sensitive for early detection of glaucomatous damage, these data suggest that RNFLT may be preferable for monitoring change.

CONCLUSIONS:

Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured by SDOCT had a better LSNR than MRW or MRA. Although MRW and MRA may be more sensitive for early detection of glaucomatous damage, these data suggest that RNFLT may be preferable for monitoring change.